Stone Direct Adhered Method: Cladding Fixing Detail
Storefronts, office and hotel lobbies, shopping malls and building facades are enhanced by the elegance of stone. Thousands of successful installations have been achieved with the direct adhered or adhesive method of installation.
When specifying a stone veneer, one must be aware of the many factors that impact on the success of the installation. Exterior applications are certainly the most critical as they involve numerous compatibility factors.
An example of rapid changes in temperature is a hot sunny day hit by a sudden rainstorm that affects the cladding. Water expands approximately 9% of its volume when it freezes, so the building materials must be able to withstand this stress.The substrate must be clean and sound for a direct adhered system. Clean means that all bond breakers or contaminants must be removed. This includes dirt, dust, curing compounds, oils and sealers — all of which are best removed by mechanical scarification. For example, gypsum wallboard is a common substrate for tiles for interior, dry area applications.
However, that same gypsum wallboard should never be used for exteriors because moisture would deteriorate the board and cause a failure. When specifying a manufactured substrate, it is most important to check with the manufacturer as to the suitability of their product for the intended purpose.
Similarly, the natural stone must be appropriate for the intended app-lication. For example, certain types of fissile stone (such as slate) can delaminate within its layered structure due to moisture/freezing expansion. The direct adhered or adhesive method of installation provides advantages over the use of mechanical anchors.
The direct adhered method allows for the use of thinner, lightweight modules, which reduces cost and allows for greater productivity. In addition, there is less waste, since stones do not require drilling or cutting in the field, a process that often results in breakage. The resulting mixture, called a thin bed mortar, is applied to the substrate and to the back of the stone to ensure 100% coverage. Another system in the direct adhered category utilizes a high-performance epoxy adhesive applied by the “spot bonding” or “dab” method. Here, the epoxy adhesive is used on approximately 10% of the surface area, thus providing a ventilation gap behind the stone. This is an important advantage because it will reduce the potential for water staining and efflorescence. These specialized epoxies are strong (shear bond strengths in excess of 1, 100 psi), and yet flexible enough to handle building movement and stress.
For certain applications, this system has been used in conjunction with mechanical anchors to provide a “belts and braces” approach to successful wall cladding. In summary, the direct adhered method of installing stone is a most reliable, proven method. Certainly, building code compliance is an important con-sideration as well. A most important point to the building owner and specifier is to check with all manufacturers involved and get as much information as you can. Lean on the manufacturers with a successful track record with installations, and use the best system possible for your application. The consequences of improper materials or poor workmanship are too severe to cut corners.
Description: hanging the pieces of stones by using the brackets and stainless steel anchor. The quantites of brackets are calculated so brackets could have strength-resistance. It is shown in every shopdrawing clearly. The gap between the wall and the back of stone is 20mm to 60mm ( belongs to tolerance of contruction wall). The quantities and size of anchors and pins will be the same as the shopdrawing. All need to be soluted before the installation. The deep of hole is 80mm à 100mm and then blowing the dust in that hole. Tightening the expansion screw and fixing the bracket in position .
And then sawing the back of stone at this position. If this position is correct, it start to fill the glue at sawed position. If the mortar is solid, the workers will fix brackets ( or anchors ). Putting the expansion screw at drilled position and then tightening the screw. After choosing the hole, the remain manipulation is the same as sticking the bracket, anchor on the surface of concrete. For the high wall, it has to have the method of bricks solution (insert more column and beam concrete ) or the methods of bolts glue.
Cladding Installation With Grapamar Ref System
Demonstration of cladding installation using Grapamar Ref 1008 with resin.
Storefronts, office and hotel lobbies, shopping malls and building facades are enhanced by the elegance of stone. Thousands of successful installations have been achieved with the direct adhered or adhesive method of installation. When specifying a stone veneer, one must be aware of the many factors that impact on the...Administrator Stone Restoration Blog